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The Arab-Israeli Conflict

When did the Arab-Israeli conflict begin? What have the Arab-Israeli wars got to do with the Palestinian question? How have the Palestinian uprisings precipitated or ambushed the peace process, and when will Israelis and Palestinians see past their no-exit strategies?
  1. Documents (27)
  2. Israel and Palestine (48)

Q&A: Israeli Attack on Gaza November 2012
What triggered Israel's Operation Pillar Defense and what where its objectives? Read about the outcome of the violence in Gaza and the prospects of the ceasefire agreement.

Hamas-Israeli Conflict in November 2012 - What We Learned
Did the November 2012 violence between Israel and Hamas change the balance of power? Is Hamas now a greater threat to Israel, and what was Egypt's role in the crisis?

The Arab Spring's Effects on the Egyptian-Israel Relationship
Israel's relationship with Egypt has always rested on a cold peace since the Camp David Agreements of 1979. That peace is in danger as the Arab Spring raises tensions.

Lebanon Rejects Israeli Peace Overture
In June 2008, Israel offered to talk peace with Lebanon, putting everything on the table--including talks over the future of disputed Shebaa Farms. Lebanon spurned the offer.

Saudi Arabia's NASCAR Gals
Hillary Clinton's meek response to Saudi Arabia's women driving in defiance of the regime's ban is another indication of America's growing irrelevance and failing legitimacy in the eyes of the new Arab generation.

Obama and the Arab Spring: A Failure of Vision
Why Barack Obama's speech on the Arab Spring and the Middle East fell short of resolving contradictions and addressing the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement
Full text of the Fatah-Hamas reconciliation agreement of April 27, 2011, outlining elections, security issues and governing matters.

Syrian President Bashar el Assad: Profile
Syrian President Bashar el Assad, in power since 2000, is one of the Middle East's most ruthless leaders. A profile.

Shouldn't the US Support a Resolution Declaring Israeli Settlements Illegal?
Isn't It Time for the US to Declare the Israeli Settlements Illegal and support a UN resolution declaring them such?

J-Street Poll: Where U.S. Jews Stand on Israel-Palestine
The results are a necessary corrective to the impression, created by Aipac, that American Jews are anywhere near the right-wing positions of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

What Was the Khartoum Declaration of 1967?
Less than two months after the Six Day War of 1967, Arab nations recognized that the solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict would have to be by political, not military, means.

Obama-Netanyahu, Round 3: Pyrrhic Draw
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is not budging from a course that can only end in disaster for all sides in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Who Was Peace Activist Rachel Corrie?
FAQ on Rachel Corrie, peace activist killed by an Israeli army bulldozer as she was protesting the demolition of a Palestinian house in Gaza.

Electronic Intifada
What is the Electronic Intifada? Brief history and purpose of the Web-based news and opinion site on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Michael Waltzer on Terrorism
Is it terrorism when soldiers are the victims? Michael Waltzer says mostly no.

Noam Shalit Testimony on His Son Gilad Shalit's Abduction by …
Full text of testimony by Noam Shalit, father of Gilad Shalit, to the Goldstone Commission regarding Gilad's abduction by Hamas militants.

The Peres Center for Peace
Brief description and history of Israel's Peres Center for Peace, established in 1996 by former prime minister and Nobel laureate Shimon Peres.

What Were the Camp David Accords of 1978?
The 1978 Egyptian-Israeli Camp David Accords sealed an eventual peace treaty between Israel and Egypt and remain the single-greatest American achievement for peace in the Middle East.

What Was the War of Attrition Between Egypt and Israel (1968-1970)?
Brief history and explanation of the 1968-1970 war of attrition between Egypt and Israel, using elements of the PLO.

How Walter Cronkite Mediated Egyptian Israeli Negotiations Be…
How Walter Cronkite in 1977 scooped Jimmy Carter and mediated Egyptian Israeli negotiations before the Camp David accords.

Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI)
The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) believes that torture and ill treatment of any kind and under all circumstances is incompatible with the moral values of democracy and the rule of law.

The Beirut Declaration: Full Text of the 2002 Arab league Peace Initiative
Full text of the Arab League Peace Initiative of 2002 known as the Beirut Declaration, recognizing a two-state solution and Israel's right to exist according to 1967 borders.

Netanyahu, Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock
Benjamin Netanyahu and Jerusalem Day: Using the rhetoric of an undivided city to further divide Palestinians and Israelis over the Tenple Mount and the Dome of the Rock.

Dunam or Dunum
Definition of Dunam, or Dunum, the measure of landholdings in the Ottoman Empire and Palestine/Israel.

Gaza War of 2009: Final Casualty Figures
Final tally of Israel's Gaza War casualties, Dec. 2008-January 2009, as reported by the Palestinian Center for Human Rights.

What Is Zionism?
What is Zionism? A brief and objective history from Theodor Herzl to modern Israel and its anti-Zionist reactions.

Bibliographical Sources in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
A Suggested List of Bibliographical Sources in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict.

Mossad's Tunis Assassination of the PLO's "Abu Jihad"
Background, details and consequences of the Mossad's assassination of the PLO's Abu Jihad, or Khalil al-Wazir, in Tunis on April 16, 1988

What Was the Irgun, or IZL?
What was the Irgun, or IZL, the Jewish terrorist organization in Mandate Palestine? A brief history.

What Is Israel's Peace Now?
Description and brief history of Peace Now, one of Israel's largest non-governmental and human rights organizations working for a two-state solution and a resolution of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Lebanon's Ayatollah Fadlallah, Shiites' (and Hezbollah's) Spiritual Leader
Beyond stereotype: Lebanon's Ayatollah Fadlallah, Hezbollah's spiritual leader. An analysis of the interview with the Wall Street Journal.

Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel's Likud Party Chief and Former Prime Minister
A profile of Benjaim Netanyahu, Israel's former Prime Minister and Likud Party chief.

How Obama Can Resolve the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
How Obama Can Resolve the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: A step-by-step approach from peace process to peace treaty.

Why Israel Is in Conflict with Al Jazeera
Following the 2009 Gaza war, Qatar shut down its trade mission with Israel. In retaliation, Israel vowed to restrict al Jazeera , the Qatar-based satellite news channel, in Israel.

How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas
Beginning in the 1970s, Israel helped to spawn Hamas in Gaza in an attempt to counterbalance the influence of Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization. The gamble failed.

Protesting Israel's Assault on Gaza: An Eyewitness Account
An eyewitness account of Egyptian protests over the Israeli assault on Hamas in Gaza--and the Egyptian government's repression of those protests.

1967: Charles De Gaulle Condemns Israel's Occupation of Arab Territories
In a November 1967 news conference, French President Charles de Gaulle condemned Israel's expansionist wars and occupation of Arab territories and predicted an unsustainable occupation.

How Saudi Arabia Discriminates Against Jews
It isn't a secret that Saudi Arabia has long discriminated against Jews, forbidding them to enter the country. Bot for years, the U.S. government complied and enabled Saudi bigotry.

Brzezinski’s Dopey Prescription for Palestinian-Israeli Peace
Zbignew Brzezinski's advice for Barack Obama on the Palestinian-Israeli peace process is outdated and simplistic.

Text of the Palestinian Declaration of Independence - Algiers Declaration (1988)
Complete text of the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Algiers Declaration, issued by the Palestinian National Council on November 15, 1988 in Algiers

What Is the Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988?
Written by Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish, the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Algiers Declaration of 1988, defined the Palestinian state, rejected violence and terrorism, and implicitly recognized Israel's right to exist.

The 1981 Saudi Arabian Peace Plan for the Middle East
On Aug. 7, 1981, Saudi Crown Prince Fahd presented an eight-point Arab-Israel peace plan that implicitly recognized Israel's right to exist. Here's the full text.

How a UN Resolution Linked Zionism and Racism in 1975
How United Nations Resolution 3379 Linked Zionism and Racism in 1975 and nearly brought the world body to collapse.

Profile: Israel's Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995)
Profile of Israel's Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995), who led Israel militarily and politically and brokered its first recognition of Palestinian autonomy in 1994.

Palmach, the Haganah Elite Group at the Origin of the Israeli defense Forces
Definition of Palmach, or "Strike Force," an elite group of the Haganah in British-Mandate Palestine that formed the core of the Israeli Defense Forces.

Origins and definition of Haganah, the paramilitary force at the origin of the Israeli Defense Forces, or Israeli military.

Profile: Rashid Khalidi, Scholar and Rare Voice for Palestinian History
Profile of Rashid Khalidi, the distinguished scholar of Middle East and Palestinian history thrust into the 2008 American presidential campaign over slanderous implications about his "association" with Barack Obama.

Saad Haddad and the South Lebanon Army (SLA)
A profile of Saad Haddad and the South Lebanon Army, who operated in South Lebanon alongside Israeli forces between 1976 and 2000.

Text of UN Resolution 425 (1978) Calling for Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon
Text of United Nations Resolution 425 (1978) Calling for Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon and the establishment of UNIFIL, the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon.

Ronald Reagan on the Assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat
President Ronald Reagan addressed the United States on radio and television briefly on Oct. 6, 1981, following the assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat. Here is what he said.

Jerusalem As the Capital of Israel: Legal Status or Illegal Occupation?
In 1980, Israel passed a law annexing East Jerusalem and declaring Jerusalem the capital of Israel, an act neither the United Nations nor the world community recognized.

UN Resolution 252 (1968) Condemning Israeli Occupation
A 1968 UN resolution condemning Israel's occupation of Arab territories, includinG East Jerusalem.

Arab Countries' 1956 Olympic Boycott Over The Suez Crisis
Lebanon, Iraq and Egypt boycotted the 1956 Summer Olympics iN Melbourne, Australia, over Israel's invasion of the Sinai and Gaza Strip.

America's Pro-Israel Bias: Why the United States Takes Israel's Side
American policy in the Middle East has had few successes to speak of—fewer still when considering the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. One reason: With few exceptions (President Carter certainly, President Clinton occasionally), Arabs in general and Palestinians in particular have not trusted American negotiators. The reason for that is no mystery. American negotiators and mediators have always taken sides—Israel’s.

Review: "The Much Too Promised Land," by Aaron David Miller
Aaron David Miller was a Middle East specialist at the State Department, formulating American policy and negotiating strategy regarding the Arab-Israeli peace process for almost a quarter century. He served six administrations along the way, Democratic and Republican, beginning with the Carter administration in 1978 and ending with the second Bush administration in 2003.

What Is the Golan? What Are the Golan Heights?
An explanation of the geographic and political meaning of the Golan Heights, the Syrian region occupied by Israel since 1967.

Text of the Egyptian-Israeli Interim Agreement of 1975
Following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the 1974 and 1975 disengagement treaties between Egypt and Israel were the first step toward a final peace agreement between the two countries.

Text of the Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Treaty of 1974
The full text of the first agreement leading to a separation of military forces between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war.

The Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Treaties of 1974 and 1975
Following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the 1974 and 1975 disengagement treaties between Egypt and Israel were the first step toward a final peace agreement between the two countries.

Glossary: Izz al-Din al-Qassam (1880-1935)
Brief summary of the life of Izz al-Din al-Qassam, founding member of Palestinian resistance against British and Jews during the British mandate over Palestine.

Glossary: Litani River, Lebanon
Description and definition of Lebanon's Litani River and its meaning in the geopolitics of the region.

Glossary: Intifada
Definition of Intifada, or uprising, or, literally, "shaking off"--the Palestinian insurgency against Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza.

Glossary: Ta'ayush
Definition of Ta'ayush, the Palestinian-Israeli grass-roots partnership and human rights movement designed to break down the walls of racism and segregation.

Is Anti-Semitism an Arab Phenomenon?
The question is offensive. It should be. Anti-Semitism was never part of the Arab, Muslim or Middle Eastern landscape until it was imported there toward the end of the 19th century and made worse by Nazi propaganda in the 1930s. Nevertheless, there's no denying that virulent anti-Semitism has been a common part of the Middle Eastern landscape since the creation of the State of Israel in 1948.

Iron Dome Missile Defense
Brief history and explanation of Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system.

Why Lebanon Matters to Israel
The louder the drumbeats of war between Israel and Iran, and the deeper the slide toward civil war in Syria, the more we’ll be nervously looking at Lebanon.

Does America Have Any Credibility in the Middle East Anymore?
From Tunisia to Afghanistan, American credibility is in tatters. Can American credibility be preserved in any way?

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