On March 11, 1978, Palestinian commandos attacked a Kibbutz in Israel then hijacked a bus on its way to Tel Aviv, resulting in a gunfight with Israeli forces and the killing of 37 mostly civilian Israelis. On March 14, Israel invaded south Lebanon in Operation Litani.
On March 19, the United Security Council adopted a resolution sponsored by the United States that called on Israel to withdraw immediately and on the United Nations to establish a peacekeeping force of 4,000 troops in South Lebanon. The resolution passed, 12-0, with two abstention: Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union objected to peacekeepers going to Lebanon. China, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, did not participate in the deliberations, as China opposed the United Nation's involvement in any peacekeeping operation anywhere.
Following is the full text of the resolution:
The Security Council, Taking note of the letters of the Permanent Representative of Lebanon (S/12600 and S/12606) and the Permanent Representative of Israel (S/12607),
Having heard the statements of the Permanent Representatives of Lebanon and Israel,
Gravely concerned at the deterioration of the situation in the Middle East, and its consequences to the maintenance of international peace,
Convinced that the present situation impedes the achievement of a just peace in the Middle East, Calls for strict respect for the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon within its internationally recognized boundaries;
Calls upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory;
Decides, in the light of the request of the Government of Lebanon, to establish immediately under its authority a United Nations interim force for southern Lebanon for the purpose of confirming the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoring international peace and security and assisting the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area, the force to be composed of personnel drawn from States Members of the United Nations.
Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council within twenty-four hours on the implementation of this resolution.