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US-Mideast Policy from Harry Truman to George W. Bush

George W. Bush isn't the first president to lose his way in intractable Middle Eastern policies. The United States' direct involvement in the region dates back more than 60 years, although learning from history seems not to be the strongest suit of American foreign policy in the region. Welcome to six decades of disorder.

Obama’s Top Five Challenges in the Middle East
What are Barack Obama’s top five challenges in the Middle East as he begins his second mandate? Without the pressure of electability, US presidents proverbially get more adventurous in the second term, but the list is daunting.

Fact-Checking Rick Perry on the Palestinian-Israeli Peace Process
Rick Perry's facts on Israel, Palestinians, statehood and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process leave a lot to be desired. Here's a line-item corrective.

Massacre in Balad, Iraq: Did U.S. Soldiers Execute a Family of 10 in 2006?
A family of 10 was massacred in Balad, Iraq, on march 15, 2006. A Wikileak cable corroborates evidence that the family members were executed. The allegation centers on a massacre perpetrated by American soldiers.

What Is the Powers Act?
War Powers Act FAQ: How the War Powers Act of 1973 requires US presidents to seek congressional authorization to engage US troops in hostilities for longer than 60 to 90 days.

What Is the Haqqani Network in Pakistan and Afghanistan?
The Haqqani Network: Sirajuddin Haqqani,Mawlawi Jalaluddin Haqqani and the al-Qaeda-Haqqani Network in Pakistan and Afghanistan: a challenge to American efforts.

Obama and the Arab Spring: A Failure of Vision
Why Barack Obama's speech on the Arab Spring and the Middle East fell short of resolving contradictions and addressing the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

After bin Laden: Al-Qaeda's Relevance Post Osama
Osama bin Laden's death is only the latest confirmation of al-Qaeda's weakened relevance, and of terrorism's

What Was Operation El Dorado Canyon, the US Attack on Libya in 1986?
Operation El Dorado Canyon, the 1986 U.S. Attack on Libya in retaliation for the terrorist bombing at a Berlin discotheque.

Should NATO Intervene Militarily Against Qaddafi?
Libya's Muammar el Qaddafi is reclaiming western Libya from rebels in the Libyan uprising. Should Obama lead a NATO military intervention against Qaddafi?

American Interests in Bahrain
Some 2,300 U.S. personnel are stationed at the headquarters of the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet in Bahrain, anchoring vast and rich American interests there.

False Fears and Shameless Pandering in Opposition to Ground Z…
Opposition to the mosque at ground zero in New York is grounded in false fears and shameless chauvinism by the likes of Newt Gingrich and Sarah Palin.

Beyond McChrystal: Why Firing a General Won't End a Lost War …
Obama had no choice but to fire Stanley McChrystal. But that was a diversion from a war in Afghanistan that's gone from bad to worse. Obama still has no plan to fix that error.

Shouldn't the US Support a Resolution Declaring Israeli Settlements Illegal?
Isn't It Time for the US to Declare the Israeli Settlements Illegal and support a UN resolution declaring them such?

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, Full Text (2011)
Full text of the no-fly zone United Nations Security Council Resolution on Libya, authorizing "all necessary measures" to implement it.

Was Bush Good or Bad for the Middle East? You Decide - George W. Bush…
Time for you to judge: Was Geoerge W. Bush good or bad for the Middle East?

J-Street Poll: Where U.S. Jews Stand on Israel-Palestine
The results are a necessary corrective to the impression, created by Aipac, that American Jews are anywhere near the right-wing positions of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Obama-Netanyahu, Round 3: Pyrrhic Draw
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is not budging from a course that can only end in disaster for all sides in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Ahmed Rashid's "Taliban"
A review of Ahmed Rashid's "Taliban" (2000), still the best book on the origins, history and ideology of the Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Congressman Howard Berman Statement on the Armenian Genocide
U.S. House Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Howard Berman's Statement supporting a Resolution calling the Armenian genocide by its name, March 4, 2010.

Letter to Obama by 54 Members of Congress Demanding End to Si…
Full text of January 21, 2010 letter by 54 members of Congress asking the Obama administration to demand that Israel lift the siege of Gaza.

Assault Breacher Vehicles
Description and purpose of the USMC's Assault Breacher Vehicle, which the Marines are using in Afghanistan.

The Prejudice of Speculation in the Fort Hood Killings
Nidal Malik Hasan's suspected killings at Fort Hood unleashed a flood of speculation and prejudice against Arabs and Muslims.

Text of Law Banning Release of Abu Ghraib and Other Torture P…
Text of the law banning the release, through a Freedom of Information exemption, of Abu Ghraib torture photos and other images.

Predator Drones and other Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Predator drones and other Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): History, uses, costs, advantages and disadvantages.

What Obama Should Do to Deserve the Nobel Peace Prize - Obama's Nobel
Winning the Nobel Prize is one thing. Earning it is another. Barack Obama has yet to earn it. But how? You decide.

Full Text: President Bush Declares "War on Terror"
Full Text of George W. Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on Terror on Sept. 20, 2001.

J Street
Description and brief history of J Street, the Jewish-American lobbying organization and liberal counterpoint to AIPAC.

Nuri al Maliki, Iraq's Prime Minister: A Profile
A profile of Nuri al Maliki, Iraq's prime minister and leader of the Shiite Islamic Al Dawa Party.

How Walter Cronkite Mediated Egyptian Israeli Negotiations Be…
How Walter Cronkite in 1977 scooped Jimmy Carter and mediated Egyptian Israeli negotiations before the Camp David accords.

The Truman Doctrine and the Middle East
The Truman Doctrine explained: How US-Middle East policy in Turkey and Greece gave rise to the Truman Doctrine and Soviet Containment in six decades of cold war.

Harry Truman's Speech Establishing the Truman Doctrine
President Harry Truman's March 12, 1947 speech to a joint session of Congress establishing the Truman Doctrine, chiefly over the Middle East.

Barbary Pirates and Wars: A Timeline
Piracy, the United States and the Middle East: The Barbary pirates, privateers and wars, a timeline (1625-1815)

How Nixon's Soviet Union Policy Informs Obama's Iran Policy
Cold War Lessons: How Richard Nixon's Soviet Union policy Informs Barack Obama's Iran Policy

Michael Jackson in Bahrain: Pop Meets Islam
When Michael Jackson, the King of Pop, re-dicovered Islam in Bahrain to escape the glare of child molestation publicity.

President James Madison Declares Victory Obver Barbary Pirates in 1815
In his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, in 1815, President James Madison Declares Victory Over Barbary Pirates after three decades of war.

Barack Obama's Cairo Speech, June 4, 2009
Full text of Barack Obama's speech to the Muslim world on extremism, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, democracy and rights, from Cairo, Egypt, June 4, 2009

Barack Obama's Cairo Speech, June 4, 2009 (Conclusion)
Conclusion of the full text of Barack Obama's speech to the Muslim world on extremism, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, democracy and rights, from Cairo, Egypt, June 4, 2009

Barack Obama and the Middle East: A Guide
The Middle East is unquestionably President Obama's toughest foreign policy challenge. The region is a complex clash of interests, histories, cultures and religions. It cannot be understood through stereotype or one-size-fits-all generalizations. Every country of the Middle East, and every conflict in the Middle East, has its own history and its own challenges. There's only so much an American pr…

Obama Declares an End to Clash of Civilizations
Speaking in Istanbul, Barack Obama declared an end to the Clash of Civilizations, the thesis invented by Samuel Huntington that gave Bush's war on terror its language and rationale.

Lyndon Johnson's Visit to Beirut, Lebanon, Aug. 23, 1962
On August 23, 2962, Vice President Lyndon Johnson visited Beirut, lebanon, the first American vice president ever to do so.

How Should Obama Deal With Iran?
A point-by-point outline of how President Barack Obama should deal with Iran, its nuclear ambitions and its perceived threat to Israel.

What If Iran Had Nuclear Weapons?
Do the West or Israel have any standing to stop Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons? Is a nuclear Iran more dangerous than a pre-emptive war on Iran?

Should Iran Have a Nuclear Bomb? - Ahmadinejad's Iran and nuc…
Who, if anyone but Iran, has the right to decide whether Iran should have nuclear weapons?

Review: "The Dark Side," by Jane Mayer
How the torture memos came to be: a book review of Jane Mayer's "The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals."

Should Barack Obama have released the Torture Memos?
The torture memos: implications of their release.

How Would You Advise Barack Obama on his Afghanistan-Pakistan…
If you were Barack Obama's Pakistan-Afghanistan adviser: how would you advise the president?

Ottoman Turkey's Genocide of Armenian: Documents, Facts and History
The genocide of up to 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turks and Kurds between 1915 and 1923 is one of the 20th century's earliest mass atrocities. Turkey has never owned up to the genocide. To this day, Turkey not only denies that a genocide took place. It prosecutes those in Turkey who claim it has and bullies other nations against acknowledging the genocide ion their official pronouncements--a…

Ronald Reagan Marks the Holocaust--And Recognizes the Armenian Genocide
The proclamation by Ronald Reagan on the 1981 Holocaust Remembrance Day, in which Reagan also recognized the Armenian genocide by Ottoman Turks.

Statement of President Barack Obama on Armenian Remembrance Day
President Barack Obama's April 24, 2009 statement on Armenian Remembrance Day, with no mention of the Armenian genocide, an Obama reversal.

Iraq Casualties, 1980-2009: From Saddam Hussein to George Bush
A tally of Iraq casualties in war and death camps, 1980-2009, from Saddam Hussein's regime to George W. Bush's war.

Barack Obama's Opening to Iran: An Analysis
Analysis of Obama's Iran-Norwuz video and the Obama's Diplomatic opening: can it work?

What Was Operation Eagle Claw, the Failed Rescue of American Hostages in Iran?
Military and operational details of Operation Eagle Claw, the failed rescue of American hostages in Iran on April 24, 1980, during the Carter administration.

The Failed Rescue of American Hostages in Iran on April 24, 1980
Background and political context of the failed rescue of American hostages in Iran on April 24, 1980.

The Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1979-1981: Origins and Background
Origins and Background of the 444-day Iranian Hostage Crisis during the Carter administration, Nov. 4, 1979-Jan. 20, 1981: the political climate, the lethal infighting of the Carter administration and the repercussion on American prestige.

Peresident Carter's Address on the Failed Rescue of American Hostages in Iran
Complete text of President Carter's televised address to the nation on the failed rescue attempt for American hostages in Iran, which caused the death of eight servicemen, April 25, 1980.

Obama: Turkey as a Bridge Between East and West, Islam and the Rest
The full text and break-down of Barack Obama's April 6, 2009 speech to the Turkish Parliament on Islam, Turkey, Armenia, Middle East peace, Turkey's European Union bid and other issues.

Why Afghanistan Is the Wrong War: Blasphemy of Human Rights
Blasphemy after blasphemy of human rights, women's rights and civil rights show why Afghanistan is the wrong war. Yet Barack Obama persists in escalating American troops and staking his future on protecting Afghanistan. Why?

Obama's Afghanistan-Pakistan Strategy
Analysis: Barack Obama's Afghanistan-Pakistan Strategy is a scaled-down, more narrowly focused version of the Bush version.

Full Text of Obama's Speech on New Strategy in Afghanistan and Pakistan
The full text of Obama's March 27, 2009 speech on his new strategy in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Obama's 2009 Nowruz Message to Iranians: New Year, New Opportunity for Peace
An Offer of Peace in Obama's Nowruz Message to Iranians: The full text of President Obama's March 20, 2009 message to Iran.

Charles W. Freeman Jr. and the Israel Lobby
National Intelligence Council nominee Charles W. Freeman and the Israel Lobby: cabal or misjudgment? The story of a failed nomination.

Learning to Live With Radical Islam
Newsweek's Fareed Zakaria argues that learning to live with radical Islam is the only way to neutralize its deadlier mutant, bin Ladenism and terrorism. Is Zakaria right?

Why Is Pakistan Barack Obama's Biggest Challenge in the Middle East?
Pakistan--not Palestine-Israel, not Iran, not Iraq--is Barack Obama's biggest Middle East (and foreign policy) challenge. Here is why, and how Obama could go about addressing it.

Confessions of Guantanamo Detainees: Punishment or Martyrdom?
Are the confessions of five Guantanamo detainees designed to speed up punishment or enshrine martyrdom? The answer indicts both confessors and the Bush administration.

Blackwater Worldwide
A definition and brief profile of Blackwater Worldwide, the private security contractor and trainer of police and mercenary personnel that gained notoriety from incidents involving abuse of power in the Iraq war.

January 2 in Middle East History
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: January 2, from the birth of a great Ottoman sultan to snow in Jerusalem, grim Palestinian-Israeli prospects for peace in Washington, and censorship in Lebanon.

Terry Anderson Remembers His Ordeal as a Hostage in Lebanon
Terry Anderson, held hostage almost seven years by Islamist militants in Lebanon, remembers his ordeal without vengeance.

Ellis Island, Arabs and Middle East Immigrants
A brief history of Arabs and Middle Eastern immigrants who passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954.

When Terry Anderson Was Taken Hostage in Beirut, March 16, 1985
An account of the day Terry Anderson was taken hostage by Shiite militants in Beirut, Lebanon, in his words and those of an Associated Press colleague. Anderson would become the longest-held American hostage in the Middle East in history.

How Saudi Arabia Discriminates Against Jews
It isn't a secret that Saudi Arabia has long discriminated against Jews, forbidding them to enter the country. Bot for years, the U.S. government complied and enabled Saudi bigotry.

Franklin and Eleanor Roosvelt Discover Bahrain
At a news conference in 1939, Franklin Roosevelt admitted he only knew of Bahrain because he collected stamps, while Eleanor admitted to not know about the kingdom at all.

What Was the Arms-for-Hostages Iran-Contra Affair?
A bried explanation of the Reagan administration's arms-for-hostages scandal known as the Iran-Contra Affair, which implicated numerous members of the Reagan administration--including Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

Prosecutions Resulting from Iran-Contra Affair
A complete list of individual prosecutions, convictions and pardons in the Reagan administration's arms-for-hostages Iran-Contra Affair, including Oliver North, John Poindexter, Bud McFarlane and Caspar Weinberger

President Bill Clinton's Eulogy at Yitzhak Rabin's Funeral, Nov. 6, 1995
An earnestly shaken President Clinton delivered these words at Mt. Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem at Yitzhak Rabin's funeral on Nov. 6, 1995, following Rabin's assassination two days earlier.

Profile: Rashid Khalidi, Scholar and Rare Voice for Palestinian History
Profile of Rashid Khalidi, the distinguished scholar of Middle East and Palestinian history thrust into the 2008 American presidential campaign over slanderous implications about his "association" with Barack Obama.

The 1983 Attack on U.S. Marines in Lebanon
On October 23, 1983, a suicide bomber slammed his truck into U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut, killing 241 Marines. It was the emergence of Hezbollah--and the signal failure of Reagan administration policy in Lebanon.

Eyewitness to the 1983 Marines Bombing in Beirut
The White House asked Rabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff to write of his experience during the rescue effort following the bombing of the US Marines barracks in Beirut in 1983, when 241 Marines were killed. The text of Rabbi Resnicoff's recollections.

The Shame of Guantanamo
The concentration camp on Guantanamo Bay, an illegal shame, should be an indictment of national drift from constitutional principles and international law.

Ronald Reagan and the Killing of 241 U.S. Marines in Beirut in 1983
Caspar Weinbeger describes how Ronald Reagan reacted to the U.S. Marines massacre in a suicide bomb attack in Beirut on Oct. 23, 1983.

Colin Powell on Muslims, Arabs, Rumors and Barack Obama
Former Secretary of State Colin Powell on "Meet the Press" on October 19, 2008, endorsed Barack Obama and addressed "rumors" about Obama being a Muslim, an Arab or a terrorist--by speaking honorably about Islam.

What Are Status of Forces Agreements?
An explanation of Status of Forces agreements, or SOFA, between the United States and some 100 governments hosting U.S. troops.

U.S.-NATO Air Raids and Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan: The Facts
Contrary to John McCain's and Sarah Palin's claims, there's no question that American and NATO forces are air-raiding civilians and causing heavy civilian casualties in Afghanistan.

An Election Largelty Driven By the Middle East
No question: the economy is the dominant issue in the 2008 presidential election between Barack Obama and John McCain. But foreign affairs is a close second, because it's on foreign affairs that the electorate is gauging the candidates' judgment, stability, leadership, knowledge and convictions. And when we talk foreign affairs these days in the United States, it pretty much comes down to one pla…

Ronald Reagan on the Assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat
President Ronald Reagan addressed the United States on radio and television briefly on Oct. 6, 1981, following the assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat. Here is what he said.

Analysis: What the Biden-Palin Debate Says of Their Middle East Policies
An analysis of the Joe Biden-Sarah Palin vice presidential debate, focusing ion Middle East issues from the Iraq War to Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, Palestinians, Pakistan and more.

Should US Embassy in Israel Be in Tel Aviv or in Jerusalem?
The US Embassy in Israel has always been in Tel Aviv. Should it be in Jerusalem, where no other country has its embassy? US Law says it should. US policy says it shouldn't.

McCain-Obama Debate the Middle East: Excerpts from the Sept. 26, 2008 Debate, 2
Excerpts from the Barack Obama-John McCain presidential debate of Sept. 26, 2008, on Middle Esat issues, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, al-Qaeda, terrorism and Henry Kissinger

McCain-Obama Debate the Middle East: Excerpts from the Sept. 26, 2008 Debate, 1
Excerpts from the Barack Obama-John McCain presidential debate of Sept. 26, 2008, on Middle Esat issues, including the Iraq war, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, al-Qaeda, terrorism and Henry Kissinger

Biden-Palin Debate: Excerpts on Middle East Issues
Excerpts from the Joe Biden-Sarah Palin Vice Presidential debate of Oct. 2, 2008, on Middle Esat issues, including the Iraq war, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Israel and the Palestinians, Hezbollah and Darfur

How John McCain and Barack Obama Ignored the Middle East
How John McCain and Barack Obama managed to ignore most of the key issues confronting the United States in the Middle East in their first presidential debate--the one focused on foreign affairs.

How John McCain Name-Dropped Waziristan and Misunderstood Pakistan
John McCain says he's "been to Waziristan." Has he really? And if he has, has he learned anything? McCain appears to misunderstand Waziristan and Pakistan.

Arab Americans in the United States: Population Breakdown
A table graphically breaking down Arab American populations in the United States in California, Michigan, New York and seven other states, according to the Census Bureau and Zogby International estimates.

How Arab Americans Vote
How Arab Americans have voted in presidential elections from 1996 to the present, including projections for the Barack Obama-John McCain presidential race in 2008.

"Mission Accomplished" Speech by President Bush on USS Abraham Lincoln
Transcript of President George W. Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech from the deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln aircraft carrier on May 1, 2003.

Joe Biden's Middle East Policy
Obama running mate Joe BidenÂ’s Middle East policy aligns closest to that of Jimmy Carter: Negotiations first and foremost, enhanced by large infusions of non-military aid where necessary. HereÂ’s a comprehensive run-down of BidenÂ’s Middle East policy from the Iraq war to Afghanistan to Iran's nuclear weapons to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Sen. Joe Biden on Authorizing War on Iraq
On Oct. 10 and 11, 2002, the US Senate debated and authorized President Bush's request to wage war on Iraq, with Joe Biden voting with the majority. Here are Joe Biden's comment during the debate.

John McCain's Beirut Deception: Opposing Marines' Deployment 1 Year Into Mission
John McCain claims to have voted in 1983 against sending U.S. Marines to Beirut, Lebanon, because his "knowledge" and "background" told him that Marines couldn't succeed in that situation. McCain is being deceitful and dishonest about the facts, and self-aggrandizing about his role.

Barack Obama in Arab and Middle Eastern Eyes
As Barack Obama tours the Middle East for the first time since he won the Democratic primary, Arabs and other Middle Easterners have no illusions. ItÂ’s nice that his middle name is Hussein, the regionÂ’s consensus appears to be; itÂ’s encouraging that he knows a thing or two about Islam, having had a Muslim father. But itÂ’s not going to change essential facts about American policy.

Obama and Israel: An Analysis of Barack Obama's AIPAC Speech
The speech was greatly anticipated by Jews still wondering whether to throw their support behind Obama. It was also Obama’s chance to redefine his Middle East policy--where Obama stands with Israel, where Obama stands with Iran. He took it—and came out sounding more hawkish than any Democratic president had been since Harry Truman.

Barack Obama's AIPAC Speech, June 4, 2008: The Full Text
The full text of the speech Barack Obama delivered to AIPAC, the American-Israel Political Action Committee, on June 4, 2008

President George W. Bush and the Middle East: What Went Wrong
What went wrong with President George W. Bush's Middle East policy? It was never thought out strategically or tactically. Only ideologically. And only half-heartedly at that.

Glossary: Operation Restore Hope (Somalia, 1993-1994)
Definition of the United States-led military and humanitarian intervention to stop the famine in Somalia in 1993.

Barack Hussein Obama's Arab Baggage
Imagine what it must be like for a man like Barack Hussein Obama to walk around with a pair of Arab names and 9% of his life having been lived in the world's most populous Muslim nation (Indonesia). The racists are lining up to take their shots at him.

Mitt Romney's Middle East Policy
What would Mitt Romney's policies be regarding the Middle East, terrorism and the war in Iraq? In most cases, the answers are very general, betraying Romney's severely limited foreign policy experience.

Mike Huckabee's Middle East Policy
Huckabee is eloquent where Bush is bombastic. Huckabee is articulate where Bush sounds simplistic. But both men share the crusader’s perspective, seeing the fate of the world intimately linked with American willingness not only to protect freedom, but to project it and foment it where it’s wanting.

The Annapolis Summit: Shooting for the Palestinian-Israeli Moon
The summit’s aims are as high as expectations are low. A deal between Israelis and Palestinians would be little short of miraculous. Even is a deal is struck, chances are dispiritingly low that it would be carried out without being hijacked by violent and unresolved realities on the ground, for many reasons.

Glossary: Iraq War Resolution
Definition and background to the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution by the U.S. Congress on Oct. 10-11, 2002.

Glossary: Operation Desert Storm
Definition and scope of Operation Desert Storm, the offensive phase of the U.S.-led military operation to clear Kuwait of Iraqi forces in the first Gulf War, in January-February 1991.

Glossary: Operation Desert Shield
Definition of Operation Desert Shield, precursor to Operation Desert Storm, during the first Gulf War against Iraq in 1990.

Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program: Ambition or Reality?
Iran has been aiming to become a nuclear power for more than two decades. The question has always been: for peaceful or offensive means? Iranian leaders themselves have been of two minds an Iranian nuclear weapons program.

Barack Obama's Middle East Policy
As president, Barack Obama would extend the Middle East an olive branch at the end of a stick: he is the dovish hawk of the Democratic field of 2008 candidates, often looking to have it both ways.

The Barack Obama-Madrassa Smear
The false allegation that Barack Obama attended a west-hating "madrassa" in Indonesia when he was young, and that he is a Muslim, keeps being repeated. The allegations are scurrilous in every way.

John McCain's Middle East Policy
Heavily influenced by his Cold War experience, McCain’s Middle East policy is mostly a continuation of existing policies. A heavy and continued military presence in Iraq, striking Iran if necessary, and building up Pakistan militarily. The one word that sums up McCain’s Middle East and foreign policy is interventionism.

Rudolph Giuliani's Middle East Policy
Among GOP candidates for the 2008 presidential race, Rudolph Giuliani is the most hawkish. He calls for continued war on many fronts, he talks down negotiations, and he believes in a "clash of civilizations," with the United States as the world's best hope for freedom and democracy.

Hillary Clinton's Middle East Policy
What would a Hillary Rodham Clinton presidency mean in terms of the Middle East? A blend of hawkish policies protective of American and Israeli interests blended with renewed appeal to multilateralism and international alliances.

The U.S. and the Middle East in 10 Easy Pieces
US-Mideast policies from Harry Truman to George W. Bush: an administration-by-administration breakdown, with all relevant events in each.

Is the "Surge" Working?
The Bush Administration says yes. The facts say no.

Bush's Road Map for Peace: The Second Speech
President George W. Bush's Road Map for Peace in the Middle East: the Bush administration steps into the peace process between Israelis and Palestinians: the second speech.

Bush's Road Map for Peace: The First Speech
President George W. Bush's Road Map for Peace in the Middle East, the Bush administration steps into the peace process between Israelis and Palestinians: the first speech.

The National Security Strategy of the United States
The 2006 White House document that sets out American foreign policy goals and sees Iraq and Afghanistan as "the front lines in the war on terror."

Bush's Road Map for Peace: Five Years Later
An analysis of George W. Bush's 2002 proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine, five years later: How the Road Map was folded up and put away.

The THAAD Missile Defense System
Brief description of the THAAD missile defense system built by Lockheed Martin.

What Is the Military's Heat-Ray Gun, or "Active Denial System"?
The U.S. military deployed a heat-ray gun, or "Active Denial System," as a weapon of crowd control in Afghanistan. The gun projects an intolerable beam of energy that burns the skin from a distance.

Forget 2011: Troops Won't Return from Afghanistan Before 2014.
US Troops in Afghanistan have tripled on Obama's watch. The president set 2011 as the beginning of a US withdrawal. That's changing to 2014.

Saudi Arabia and the Financing iof Terrorism and Sunni Extremism Worldwide
Text of a secret cable on Saudi Arabia's financing of terrorist organizations and Sunni extremism worldwide. The cable was part of the Wikileaks document dump.

The Middle East's Best Travel Spots in 2011
From Morocco to Iraqi Kurdistan, the Middle East scores six spots out of The New York Times' 41 best travel spots and places to go in 2011.

Letter to Obama Urgining Support for a UN Condemnation of Israeli Settlements
Text of the letter to President Obama urging him to support a UN resolution condemning illegal Israeli settlements.

The Egyptian Revolution in the Context of U.S. Policy in the Middle East
Understanding the Egyptian Revolution against Hosni Mubarak in the context of U.S. or American policy in the Middle East.

Does America Have Any Credibility in the Middle East Anymore?
From Tunisia to Afghanistan, American credibility is in tatters. Can American credibility be preserved in any way?

Libya, Bahrain, Obama and Double-Standards
Barack Obama's double-standard: the U.S. president is backing a military attack on Libya while looking the other way in Yemen and Bahrain.

The Middle East & 2012 US Elections
Turmoil in the Middle East could impact on the US presidential polls in November 2012. See five negative scenarios that could potentially hurt President Barack Obama’s re-election chances.

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